The website and ministry, Messianic Good News, always post’s interesting teachings and studies concerning prophecy. The one below is in a series titled “THE VINDICATION AND EXALTATION OF MESSIAH”.
When will these things happen?
by Kevin Daly
Matthew 24 and the vindication of Messiah
Jesus left the temple and was walking away when his disciples came up to him to call his attention to its buildings. “Do you see all these things?” he asked. “I tell you the truth, not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down.”
As Jesus was sitting on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately. “Tell us,” they said, “when will this happen, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?” (Matthew 24: 1-3)
After denouncing the Pharisees for their hypocrisy, and announcing that all the innocent blood ever shed from the time of Abel would be avenged upon that generation, Jesus abandoned the Temple, and departed on the course followed by the Shechinah in Ezekiel’s vision (Eze. 11:23), namely towards the east and onto the Mount of Olives.
It was probably on the ascent of that Mount on the other side of the Kidron Valley that the disciples pointed back to the magnificent structure that the Herodians had spent more than 46 years in building (John 2:20).
Alfred Edersheim imagines the circumstance:
“They had left the Sanctuary and the City, had crossed black Kidron, and were slowly climbing the Mount of Olives. A sudden turn in the road, and the Sacred Building was once more in full view. Just then the western sun was pouring his golden beams on tops of marble cloisters and on the terraced courts, and glittering on the golden spikes on the roof of the Holy Place. In the setting, even more than in the rising sun, must the vast proportions, the symmetry, and the sparkling sheen of this mass of snowy marble and gold have stood out gloriously. And across the black valley, and across the slopes of the Olivet, lay the dark shadows of those gigantic walls built of massive stone, some of them nearly twenty-four feet long.”1
Yet, ‘what is highly valued among men is detestable in God’s sight’.2
Our Lord did not hold sentimental affections and was not moved by aesthetic grandeur. He could see only the monument to pride and religious pretence that the Temple had become – a place that the God of Israel had now abandoned.
In response to his disciples’ reservations, evoked by the distant sight of those buildings, the Lord affirms the desolation He announced earlier:3
‘I tell you the truth, not one stone here will be left on another; every one will be thrown down.’
While the earlier destruction by Nebuchadnezzar had served as a warning and a precedent, Jesus hints at finality in the way he announces the destruction that would come at this time.
Complete demolition was the final step prescribed by the Law of Moses for a contaminated dwelling – once all measures aimed at its preservation had failed. It is with reference to this Law that the significance of Jesus’ decree, that ‘not one stone here shall be left upon another’, becomes clear. (Refer to Leviticus 14:33-45 and see our 3rd quarter 2004 article, ‘The Leprous House’ – which deals with this topic.)
It is Jesus’ emphatic confirmation of the Temple’s fate that leads to the disciples’ question: ‘When will this happen, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the end of the age?’
While some argue this to be three separate questions – so that Jesus’ answer in the subsequent verses must be unravelled and applied to three different events – this is not supported by the parallel accounts in Mark’s and Luke’s gospels:
‘Tell us, when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are all about to be fulfilled?‘ (Mark 13:4)
‘Teacher,’ they asked, ‘when will these things happen? And what will be the sign that they are about to take place?’ (Luke 21:7)
What Jesus prophesied against the Temple would happen at our Lord’s coming in judgment and would also, by implication, bring about the end of that age.
Matthew records the disciples’ question in the prophetic language of the Old Testament, which was familiar to the Jewish audience for which his gospel was written. In this language, the execution of Divine judgment was commonly spoken of as a visitation of the LORD, as either His coming or His coming in the cloud.
Our God shall come, and shall not keep silence: a fire shall devour before him, and it shall be very tempestuous around him. (Psalm 50:3)
For behold, the LORD comes out of his place to punish the inhabitants of the earth for their iniquity: the earth also shall disclose her blood, and shall no more cover her slain. (Isaiah 26: 21. Cf. Mat 23:35-36 & Rev 18:24).
Most pertinent, in view of the disciples’ question, is Micah’s prophecy against the ‘high places’ – being localities of false worship,4 which the Temple in Jerusalem had now also become:
For behold, the LORD comes forth from his place, and will come down, and tread upon the high places of the earth. And the mountains shall be melted under him, and the valleys shall be cleft, as wax before the fire, and as the waters that are poured down a steep place. For the transgression of Jacob is all this, and for the sins of the house of Israel … What are the high places of Judah? Are they not Jerusalem? (Micah 1:3-5)
The loss of the means of atonement under the Mosaic covenant would render that covenant ineffectual and consequently mean the end of Israel as it was then constituted.
Jesus’ coming in judgment would bring about the destruction of the city and the Sanctuary – in the case of the latter, to the removal of its last stone.
Daniel prophesied some 530 years earlier that ‘seventy weeks’ were decreed ‘for your people and your holy city … The people of the ruler who will come will destroy the city and the Sanctuary. The end will come like a flood: War will continue until the end, and desolations have been decreed’ (Daniel 9:24, 26b).
‘The end’ that Daniel spoke of and the same ‘end of the age’ that the disciples refer to in their question, is thus the end precipitated by the destruction of the Sanctuary, not the end of the mortal age, as many conclude.
(1) WARS, DESOLATIONS & THE COMING KINGDOM
We are told that the events predicted by Jesus in answer to his disciples’ question relate to the great distress which was to come upon ‘the land,’ and the ‘wrath upon this people’ (Luke 21:23). From Matthew’s version we know that ‘this generation will not pass’ until all these things have come (v. 34, cf. Mat 23:36).
This punishment was moreover in fulfillment of all that the Prophets had previously foretold regarding the fate of impenitent Israel:
For these are the days of vengeance, that all things which are written may be fulfilled. (Luke 21:22)
If the events mentioned by Jesus are the fulfillment of ‘all things which are written,’ it is natural that He should draw from those earlier prophecies, and we should not be confused when He uses the same language and imagery – intended to evoke in his hearers’ minds a recollection of those prophetic writings, and to demonstrate their fulfillment in the events he was predicting to them at that time.
With this in mind, Jesus begins his response with reference to Daniel’s above-cited prophecy of the Temple’s destruction.
- (Mat 24:6,14) “you will hear of wars and rumours of wars … but the end is not yet” – (war will continue until the end – Dan 9:26b)
- (Mat 24:6,14) “and there will be famines and pestilences and earthquakes in different places” (and desolations have been decreed –Dan 9:26b)
- (Mat 24:6,14) “then the end will come” (the end will come like a flood: Dan 9:26b)
We have it on the authority of scripture and history that war and famine ensued from the time of Jesus’ crucifixion to the time that the Romans conquered Jerusalem, forty years later.7 More than ten major earthquakes were recorded during that time.8
The critical intervening factor before ‘the end would come’ – not mentioned by Daniel in chapter 9, but announced earlier in his Book – was that the Kingdom of God would at that time be established, amidst the kingdoms of this world.
In the time of those kings, the God of heaven will set up a kingdom that will never be destroyed, nor will it be left to another people. It will crush all those kingdoms and bring them to an end, but it will itself endure forever. (Daniel 2:44)
This kingdom would be established by means of ‘this gospel of the Kingdom’ (Mat 24:14) which would spread out from Jerusalem to the ends of the earth, before the Temple’s destruction. In fulfilling this commission, the disciples would face persecution and suffering, and often pay with their lives.
And you will hear of wars, and rumours of wars: see that you are not troubled: for all these things must come to pass, but the end is not yet. For nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom: and there will be famines, and pestilences, and earthquakes in different places. All these are the beginning of birth-pangs. Then will they deliver you up to be afflicted, and will kill you: and you will be hated by all nations for my name’s sake. And then will many be offended, and will betray one another, and will hate one another. And many false prophets will arise, and will deceive many. And because iniquity will abound, the love of many will become cold. But he that endures to the end shall be saved. And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in all the world, for a testimony to all nations; and then will the end come. (Mat 24:6-14)
The prediction of persecution corresponds with the earlier warnings in Matthew 10, John 15, John 16, etc. It follows also as the consequence of Matthew 23:34, where Jesus predicts the murderous response of the religious sect toward His emissaries – those He commissioned to advance the Kingdom after his ascent.
The hatred would spill over to the nations to which the gospel was later proclaimed, stemming not only from Jews of the Diaspora, but also from Gentiles, many of whom were threatened by the demise of idolatry, paganism and emperor worship.
There are ample records of these persecutions in the Acts and epistles,9 not to mention church history.
That many of the saints shrunk back at this time is also borne out by the testimony of scripture.10 But those ‘who endured to the end’ (Mat 24:13) – being, in this case, the end of their mortal lives11 – were preserved.
Despite the widespread opposition, the gospel of the kingdom reached the ends of the earth before AD70. We have this also on the authority of scripture, in that Colossians 1:6 states that ‘all over the world this gospel is bearing fruit,’ and Romans 10:18 states that the gospel had ‘gone out into all the earth … to the ends of the world’.12a
“The world is oikoumene, lit. ‘the inhabited area’, a standard term originally for the Greek world (as opposed to barbarians), then for the Roman Empire, and subsequently for the whole of the then known world; it is thus not so much a geographical term which must include every area and community now known to be on earth, but rather an indication of the universal offer of the gospel to all nations, i.e. outside the confines of the Jewish community.”12b
As the gospel spread, it reached not only faithful Jews of the Diaspora, but also the estranged and assimilated descendants of Israel’s northern tribes and many God-fearing souls from among the Gentiles. This fulfilled Isaiah’s well-known prophecy:
‘It is too small a thing for you to be my servant to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back those of Israel I have kept. I will also make you a light for the Gentiles, that you may bring my salvation to the ends of the earth’.13
These three groups would be united to become heirs of the Kingdom, the Israel of God (cf. Ezek 37). Isaiah also predicted the new nation that would be born from the ashes of that Jerusalem that is from below:
Hear the word of the LORD, you who tremble at his word: ‘Your brothers who hate you, and exclude you because of my name, have said, `Let the LORD be glorified, that we may see your joy!’ Yet they will be put to shame. Hear that uproar from the city, hear that noise from the temple! It is the sound of the LORD repaying his enemies all they deserve. ‘Before she goes into labour, she gives birth; before the pains come upon her, she delivers a son. Who has ever heard of such a thing? Who has ever seen such things? Can a country be born in a day or a nation be brought forth in a moment? Yet no sooner is Zion in labour than she gives birth to her children.’ (Isaiah 66:5-8)
The events of Matthew 24:6-8 are thus described as ‘the beginning of birth-pangs’.14 The physical would give birth to the spiritual, and the ‘types and shadows’ of the Old Covenant bring forth eternal realities.
The Old would become obsolete and disappear before the New could be finally established.15
David was anointed king during Saul’s lifetime, but not enthroned till after Saul’s death. So, too, the Jerusalem that was of the flesh had to be ‘cast out’ in order to make way for the eternal city of God (Gal 4:21-31), and Messiah’s reign over his kingdom would be incontrovertible from the time of the Temple’s destruction, as would the covenant in His blood by which it was constituted.
Having completed his work on earth, obtaining redemption from sins through the gift of his blood, the Son of Man ascended to heaven and entered the presence of the Ancient of Days to receive ‘authority, glory and sovereign power; all peoples, nations and men of every language worshiped him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and his kingdom is one that will never be destroyed.’ 16
(2) APPROACHING THE END
A more detailed description of the circumstances leading to ‘the end’ follows in verses 15-22:
Therefore when you see the abomination of desolation, spoken of by Daniel the prophet, stand in the holy place (whoever reads, let him understand). Then let those in Judea flee into the mountains. Let him on the housetop not come down to take anything out of his house; nor let him in the field turn back to take his clothes. And woe to those who are with child, and to those who give suck in those days! But pray that your flight is not in the winter, nor on the Sabbath day; for then shall be great tribulation, such as has not been since the beginning of the world to this time; no, nor ever shall be. And unless those days should be shortened, no flesh would be saved. But for the elect’s sake, those days shall be shortened. (Mat 24:15-22)
The abomination that causes desolation, ‘spoken of by the prophet Daniel,’ is not the abomination spoken of in chapter eleven of his Book, but rather the abomination that would make the city and the Sanctuary desolate (Daniel 9:26). We know this from the parallel account in Luke’s gospel, where the herald of imminent destruction is clearly identified as the armies that surround the city:
And when you see Jerusalem compassed with armies, then know that its destruction has come. (Luke 21:20)
From this account we also know that the holy place is not only the inner sanctum or even the temple complex as a whole, but rather the entire city, as it was often described, i.e. as the holy city or Jerusalem the holy.17
When the Roman army would encircle Jerusalem, the believers in Christ would know to make their escape.
Those who were in the country would likewise not enter the city (Luke 21:21), as did the rest of the Jews – for the siege closed in at the time of the Passover, when the whole country was coming up to Jerusalem for the Feast.
Josephus gives an account:
‘ … the number of those who perished during the whole siege [was] eleven hundred thousand, the greater part of whom were indeed of the same nation, but not belonging to the city itself; for they were come up from all the country to the Feast of Unleavened Bread, and were on a sudden shut up by an army …’ 18
Daniel saw that it would be: ‘for the overspreading of abominations, [that] he shall make [the city and the Sanctuary] desolate, even until the consummation, and that determined shall be poured upon the desolate’ (Daniel 9:27, KJV).
In the time leading up to the siege, Jerusalem veered towards anarchy, with rival factions of the Jews contesting for control. The faction most eager for war against Rome made the Temple precinct its barracks and headquarters, and regularly went out from there to kill any of those Jews who favoured peace.19
The same faction took authority over the priesthood, deposing and appointing the High Priest at a whim, choosing their candidate without regard for lineage or qualification, by the casting of lots.
For the proliferation of bloodshed and the atrocities that occurred, the deposed High Priest, Ananus, reportedly cried:
“Certainly it had been good for me to die before I had seen the house of God so full of so many abominations, or these sacred places, that ought not to be trodden upon at random, filled with the feet of these blood-shedding villains.”20
The same temple courts from which Jesus had driven the money changers later became a mortuary for Jews killed in faction fighting, while there flowed through the inner courts of the Sanctuary the blood of priests killed ‘while performing their sacred ministrations,’ and of many worshippers interrupted before the altar by the darts and arrows of the bandits.21
It was thus not for the desecration wrought by Antiochus Epiphanes at the time of the Maccabees, i.e. the events described in Daniel 11, or for any similar or corresponding event in later history, but for the overspreading of the Jews’ own abominations that the Temple would be destroyed. It is perhaps this factor that called for special understanding in the reading of Daniel’s prophecy.22
The conditions that prevailed elsewhere in the city are recorded by Josephus in books 5 and 6 of The Jewish War. After one of the factions of the Jews set fire to the city’s grain supply, whole families and households succumbed to famine. The bandits obtained food by torture and dissected the dead for whatever they could find. A mother shamelessly made a meal of her infant child.
In summary, Josephus suggests: ‘neither did any other city ever allow such miseries, nor did any age ever breed a generation more fruitful in wickedness than this was, from the beginning of the world.’23
As for the extent of the tribulation that came upon Jerusalem at that time, ‘the multitude therein perished exceeded all the destruction that either men or God ever brought upon the world,’ and ‘the misfortunes of all men, from the beginning of the world, if they be compared to these of the Jews are not so considerable as they were.’24
For then shall be great tribulation, such as hath not been since the beginning of the world to this time, no, nor ever shall be. And unless those days should be shortened, no flesh would be saved. But for the elect’s sake, those days shall be shortened. (vv. 21-22)
‘For the sake of the elect,’ suggests R. T. France, means: ‘in order to allow the elect to survive, or perhaps because the presence of the elect in the world mitigates the severity of God’s judgment (cf. the righteous in Sodom, Gn. 18:23-32).’25
That ‘flesh’ would be saved, indicates once more that the Lord is not speaking of the end of the mortal age. A number of Jews survived the siege. Some were carried off as slaves to various parts of the Empire and about forty thousand were left free to remain in the Land or choose their own abodes.26
(3) ON FALSE PROPHETS, MESSIAHS & HIS FUTURE COMINGS
The prevalence of false prophets and false Messiahs at that time, is explained in the illustration of vultures gathering around a corpse (Mat 24:28). Purveyors of falsehood prey on the spiritually destitute. That many such leaders arose, probably with claims to divine authority and anointing, is once again evident from both Scripture and history.27
Josephus explains how the utter desperation of those caught up in Jerusalem’s extremity induced them to hopes of deliverance, at a time when nothing but judgment could be expected from God:
‘A false prophet was the occasion of these people’s destruction, who had made a public proclamation in the city that very day, that God commanded them to get upon the temple, and that there they should receive miraculous signs of their deliverance. Now there was then a great number of false prophets suborned by the tyrants to impose on the people, who pronounced this to them, that they should wait for deliverance from God; and this was in order to keep them from deserting, and that they might be buoyed up above fear and care by such hopes. Now a man in this adversity does easily comply with such promises … Thus were the miserable people persuaded by these deceivers, and such as believed God himself; while they did not attend nor give credit to the signs that were so evident, and did so plainly foretell their future desolation.’ 28
Because of this, Jesus warned his disciples that He would not again appear in the guise of mortal flesh or emerge from obscurity as they saw of him at his first coming.
Therefore if they shall say to you, Behold, He is in the desert! Do not go out. Behold, He is in the [storehouses]! Do not believe it. For as the lightning comes out of the east and shines even to the west, so also will be the coming of the Son of Man. (Matthew 24:26-27)
Having established his kingdom and accomplished salvation unto eternal life, Messiah will not reappear to lead men in temporal warfare. We obtain our deliverance by that Word that shall never pass away – just as the believers of that time could escape the judgment on Jerusalem by heeding this prophecy. Ultimately we have the assurance that nothing in all creation, not even death itself, can separate us from the love of God which is in Christ Jesus our Lord (Rom 8:39).
(4) THE END ITSELF
And immediately after the tribulation of those days, the sun shall be darkened and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from the heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken. And then the sign of the Son of Man shall appear in the heavens. And then all the tribes of the [land] shall mourn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of the heaven with power and great glory. And He shall send His angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they shall gather His elect from the four winds, from one end of the heavens to the other. Now learn a parable of the fig tree. When its branch is still tender and puts out leaves, you know that summer is near. So you, likewise, when you see all these things, shall know that it is near, at the doors. Truly I say to you, This generation shall not pass until all these things are fulfilled. (Matthew 24:29-34)
The tribulation of those days is the distress that would come on Jerusalem at that time, and the end of that extremity would also be the end of that city and of that people, as Daniel prophesied. The end would come immediately after, ‘like a flood’.
Cosmic disintegration was a prophetic allegory for God’s judgment on nations and dynasties, as we see from various precedents:
Babylon – the stars of the heavens and their constellations shall not give light; the sun shall be darkened in its going forth, and the moon shall not reflect its light. – Isaiah 13:10
Egypt -And when I put you out, I will cover the heaven and make its stars dark; I will cover the sun with a cloud, and the moon shall not give her light. – Ezekiel 32:7
Israel – The earth shall tremble before them; the heavens shall shake. The sun and the moon shall grow dark, and the stars shall gather in their light. – Joel 2:19
the sun shall be darkened and the moon shall not give her light, and the stars shall fall from the heaven, and the powers of the heavens shall be shaken – Mat 24:29
The sun, moon and stars have a deeper significance in Israel’s case since the Patriarchs were described in this metaphor.29
The appearance of a sign (verse 30) would not be necessary if the Son of Man would come visibly at this time. The sign is necessary because his coming in the clouds of heaven, in power and vindication glory, alludes once more to Daniel, who spoke of ‘one like the son of man, coming with the clouds of heaven,’ to receive from the Ancient of Days ‘authority, glory and sovereign power’ so that ‘all peoples, nations and men of every language’ might worship him. The fall of Jerusalem was itself the sign (evidence) that
Jesus was enthroned at the right hand of the Father in heaven, bringing judgment on the city.30
Adam Clarke comments on verse 30:
“The plain meaning of this is, that the destruction of Jerusalem will be such a remarkable instance of Divine vengeance, such a signal manifestation of Christ’s power and glory, that all the Jewish tribes shall mourn, and many will, in consequence of this manifestation of God, be led to acknowledge Christ and his religion.”
Since Deuteronomy 18:22 establishes the fulfillment of prophecy as the test for a true prophet, Jesus would be fully vindicated at the time that his Word was fulfilled. He is thus affirmed as the risen King, ruling from the right hand of the Father in heavenly glory, with power to execute judgment and bring salvation.
The trumpet call that called back the exiles in Isaiah 27:13 would now call in the elect from the four corners of the earth. This harvest of souls to whom the gospel was sown, from far and wide for Messiah’s glory, is contrasted with the tribes of the land (Greek – της γης), who would mourn for the one they had pierced, in accordance with Zechariah 12:10. (See our article on this prophecy, published in the 1st quarter of 2005.)
It was the second time in Israel’s history that judgment was pronounced upon a generation. The first being after the majority in the wilderness scorned God by doubting their deliverance into the promised Land. (This in spite of the many miracles He gave to prove His faithfulness, from the time He led them out of Egypt.)
And the LORD’S anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation that had done evil in the sight of the LORD was consumed. (Numbers 32:13)
In keeping with the precedent, the judgments Jesus announced in sight of that great edifice, from the slopes of the Mount of Olives, occurred also within forty years (this generation).
The apostle Paul answers his own question, ‘did, then, God’s promises fail’ in the negative. The remnant of his people, saved by grace, received the Holy Spirit and became heirs to the kingdom.
These same Jews within a single generation brought Abraham’s blessing to all nations – in fulfillment of God’s promise: all nations will be blessed through you. The same also formed the root and stem of the New Covenant nation to which a great multitude has been added over the past two thousand years.
In much the same way as a person might unwittingly wait for a bus that has already departed, our ignorance of the history of the interval between Jesus’ ascension and the Roman siege of AD70 has contributed much to our expectation that events mentioned in Matthew 24 must still come to pass.
In addition, we neglect to study the Prophets, which would familiarise us with their language and allegory, and free us from our bland literalism.
Excerpts from Josephus, The Jewish War, have been published on our website under the menu item ‘Jesus revealed in prophecy’. These excerpts are highly recommended, together with the New Testament histories of F. F. Bruce, to increase knowledge of the events of that time.
- Edersheim, The Life and Times of Jesus the Messiah, Book 5, ch. 6.
- Luke 16:15.
- Mat 23:38. Cf. Jeremiah 26:1-11.
- See Leviticus 26:30; Numbers 21:28, 22:41, etc. Cf. Micah 1:5.
- See also Daniel 8, verses 19 & 24.
- Begins, that is, after warning his disciples not to be deceived by those who falsely claim God’s anointing.
- Acts 11:27-30 records a famine that ‘spread over the entire Roman world’.
- In Crete, Smyrrna, Miletus, Chios, Samos, Laodicea, Hierapolis, Colosse, Campania, Rome, Judea and Pompei.
- Acts 5:40, 16:23, 12:2, 26:10, among other references. Of those in the epistles, 1 Thes 2:14-16 is the most pertinent: ‘For you, brothers, became imitators of God’s churches in Judea, which are in Christ Jesus: You suffered from your own countrymen the same things those churches suffered from the Jews, who killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets and also drove us out. They displease God and are hostile to all men in their effort to keep us from speaking to the Gentiles so that they may be saved. In this way they always heap up their sins to the limit. The wrath of God has come upon them at last.’
- See 2 Tim 1:15 & 4:10 as examples.
- “Endurance is a prominent apocalyptic theme … To the end … is a standard phrase for ‘right through’ (it lacks the article [in the Greek text], which would be needed, as in vv. 6 and 14 to refer to ‘the End’.)” R. T. France, Matthew, Tyndale New Testament Commentaries, IVP, Leicester, 1985, p. 339.
- (a) Cf. Mat 28:18-19 & Col. 1:23 (with thanks to Michael Korn); (b) R. T. France, op. cit., p. 339.
- Isaiah 49:6.
- “The beginning of the sufferings (lit. ‘birth-pangs’ [being] a technical term in apocalyptic for the period of suffering which must lead up to a new age …” R. T. France, op. cit., p.338.
- Hebrews 8:13
- Daniel 7:14.
- Isaiah 48:2, Isaiah 52:1 and Nehemiah 11:1.
- Yosef ben Mattatias (Flavius Josephus), The Jewish War, Whiston translation, Book 6, ch. 9, par. 3.
- Josephus, The Jewish War, op.cit., Book 4, ch. 3.
- ibid., at paragraph 10.
- Josephus, The Jewish War, op. cit., Book 6, ch. 2 paragraph 1.
- The ‘overspreading of abominations’ in Daniel 9:27 thus referring to the polluted religion for which the Pharisees and Sadducees had been denounced, and the ensuing desecration of the Temple before and during the siege, of which Josephus gives such a detailed testimony.
- Josephus, The Jewish War, op. cit., Book 5, ch. 10, par. 5.
- Josephus, The Jewish War, op. cit., Book 6, ch. 10, par. 3 & Preface, par. 4.
- Op. cit., p. 341.
- Josephus, The Jewish War, op. cit., Book 6, ch. 8, paragraph 2.
- Acts 5: 36-37; 21:38. R. T. France, op. cit., pp. 338 & 342. F. F. Bruce, New Testament History, London, 1982, pp. 320-322.
- Josephus, The Jewish War, op. cit., Book 6, ch.5, paragraphs 2 & 3.
- Genesis 37:9. Cf. Revelation 12:1-6.
- Matthew 26:64 , Mark 14:62