13 Comments

Revelation 11: The Two Witnesses


“I will give power unto my two witnesses, and they shall prophesy a thousand two hundred and threescore days, clothed in sackcloth. These are the two olive trees, and the two candlesticks standing before the God of the earth.” – KJV- Rev.11: 3-4

Jamieson Faussett Brown:

I will give power–There is no “power” in the Greek, so that “give” must mean “give commission,” or some such word.
my two witnesses–Greek, “the two witnesses of me.” The article implies that the two were well known at least to John. prophesy–preach under the inspiration of the Spirit, denouncing judgments against the apostate. They are described by symbol as “the two olive trees” and “the two candlesticks,” or lamp-stands, “standing before the God of the earth.” The reference is to Zechariah 4:3,12, where two individuals are meant, Joshua and Zerubbabel, who ministered to the Jewish Church, just as the two olive trees emptied the oil out of themselves into the bowl of the candlestick. So in the final apostasy God will raise up two inspired witnesses to minister encouragement to the afflicted, though sealed, remnant. As two candlesticks are mentioned in Revelation 11:4, but only one in Zechariah 4:2, I think the twofold Church, Jewish and Gentile, may be meant by the two candlesticks represented by the two witnesses.

Wesley

These are the two olive trees – That is, as Zerubbabel and Joshua, the two olive trees spoken of by Zechariah, Zech. iii, 9, iv, 10, were then the two chosen instruments in God’s hand, even so shall these. be in their season. Being themselves full of the unction of the Holy One, they shall continually transmit the same to others also. And the two candlesticks – Burning and shining lights. Standing before the Lord of the earth – Always waiting on God, without the help of man, and asserting his right over the earth and all things therein.

Matthew Henry

In this time of treading down, God has reserved to himself his faithful witnesses, who will not fail to attest the truth of his word and worship, and the excellency of his ways. Here observe,

I. The number of these witnesses: it is but a small number and yet it is sufficient. 1. It is but small. Many will own and acknowledge Christ in times of prosperity who will desert and deny him in times of persecution; one witness, when the cause is upon trial, is worth many at other times. 2. It is a sufficient number; for in the mouth of two witnesses every cause shall be established. Christ sent out his disciples two by two, to preach the gospel. Some think these two witnesses are Enoch and Elias, who are to return to the earth for a time: others, the church of the believing Jews and that of the Gentiles: it should rather seem that they are God’s eminent faithful ministers, who shall not only continue to profess the Christian religion, but to preach it, in the worst of times.

John Gill

And I will give [power] unto my two witnesses,…. By whom are meant, not Enoch and Elias, as some of the ancient fathers thought, who, they supposed, would come before the appearance of Christ, and oppose antichrist, and be slain by him, which sense the Papists greedily catch at; nor are the Scriptures, the two Testaments, Old and New, designed, though their name and number agree, and also their office, which is to testify of Christ; but then to be clothed in sackcloth, to be killed, and rise again, and ascend to heaven, are things that cannot so well be accommodated to them: but these witnesses intend the ministers of the Gospel and churches of Christ, who have bore testimony for Christ, and against antichrist, ever since he appeared in the world;

..No two individual persons can be meant, since these witnesses were to prophesy 1260 days, that is, so many years, but a succession of ministers and churches; and these are called two, both on account of the fewness of them, and because the testimony of two is sufficient to confirm any matter; and it may be in allusion to the various instances of two eminent persons being raised up at certain periods of time, as Moses and Aaron, at the deliverance of the children of Israel out of Egypt; Caleb and Joshua, at their entrance into Canaan; Elijah and Elisha in the idolatrous times of Ahab; and Joshua and Zerubbabel at the rebuilding and finishing of the second temple.

Adam Clark

Verse 3. My two witnesses] This is extremely obscure; the conjectures of interpreters are as unsatisfactory as they are endless on this point. Those who wish to be amused or bewildered, may have recourse both to ancients and moderns on this subject.

(I got a kick out of Adam Clark’s commentary on the two witnesses.)

The Four Main Views of Revelation 11:1-6

The Preterist view: They see this passage as a reference to Ezekiel. To measure is seen from Ezekiel, chaps 40-47, to divide from what is holy from what is profane and corrupt as what defines a true Temple of God; the results from the examination mean judgment and destruction. The call to remain pure and reform was rejected by the Jews and thus the Temple was destroyed (Is. 1:12; Jer. 10:16; 51:19; Ezek. 22:26; 40-43; Zech. 2:1-5; Dan. 7:25; Luke 21:24; Rev. 21:15-16). (Forty-two) 42 months is seen as the length of Nero’s war with the Christians and/or the siege of Jerusalem. The two witnesses seem to have baffled many in this camp, as it seems to point to a hole in their theory. (All these views have holes because our reasoning is limited and we tend to look to our own education and agendas, not at the big picture, and do not do all of the inductive research to see what the text is really saying.) Many see them as symbolic of a testimony to corrupt Judaism, as two literal people or prophets who are lost to history, as the “lamp stands” and “olive trees” from Zechariah 4:11-14, or as representative of the witnesses of Christ. Some have said they were Peter and James.

The Futurist view: They see to “measure” as representing God’s ownership of his faithful during the tribulation and/or His preservation and protection of them. The “Temple of God” is seen as a new one, yet to be rebuilt, which, citing examples from Ezekiel, people in this camp see as an even essential prior to Christ’s return. However, a major exegetical, textual problem occurs with this view as the Temple had already been destroyed, then rebut twice, once right after Ezekiel’s prophecy and again under Herod. It was destroyed in 70 AD. The Temple represents faithfulness and/or the Church: the people of God and the “outer court” are seen as representing apostasy and/or the distinction of people remaining faithful or not during the tribulation. The “two witnesses” are viewed as literal forerunners to Christ’s return, those faithful ones who preach and prophecy during the tribulation, or that Moses or Enoch and Elijah actually come back to do that. The “42 months” and “1260” days are seen as the first half of the great Tribulation, the last half, or a time after the tribulation.

The Idealist view: They see to “measure” as God’s awareness of His worshipers—those who are true and those who are not as referenced by the “outer court.” Also, this refers to apostasy invading the Church such as liberality and worldliness. The “Temple of God” is seen as the inner sanctum, the Holy of Holies where the high priest entered once a year to dust, which to this view refers to those who are true worshipers of God (1 Cor. 3:16-17; 2 Cor. 6:16; Eph. 2:19-22; 1 Tim. 3:15; Heb. 3:6; 1 Pet. 2:5). (Forty-two) “42 months” is seen as grace, limiting the time of persecution (Dan. 7:25). The “two witnesses” refer to the church as a witness to the world from mission movements. “Sackcloth” refers to bringing the message of repentance. The “olive trees” refer to Zerubbabel and Joshua who were agents of restoration. “Fire from mouths” means those who bring harm to the Church will be judged.

The Historicist view: They see to “measure” as to look over and examine the church and see what is real, true, and devout, and what is distorted from God’s call and God’s authority given to those who are to reform the Church. The “Temple of God” is seen as the church of true, devout believers drawing from other N.T. passages (1 Cor. 3:16; 6:19; 2 Thess. 2:4). The “outer court” or Court of the Gentiles is seen as the visible Church that becomes a corrupt institution, devoid of real, heartfelt worshipers, such as the Roman Catholic Church or liberalism. These were the indicators that gave the Reformers the vision and reassessment to reform the Church back to God and away from corruption which led to the Reformation. (Forty-two) “42 months” is seen as 1260 years, the duration of the Catholic Church and its persecution of true believers up to the Reformation. The “two witnesses” are representative of the faithful Christians who tried to reform and stand against the Catholic Church such as Huss and Wycliffe. The miraculous power given is seen as an instrument and reason for God’s judgments and/or clothed in God’s power (Deut. 32:2; Is. 55:10). “Fire from mouths” means the power of preaching and the power of the Spirit and/or from Jeremiah 5:14. The plagues are seen as the evils resulting from the corruption of the Church, such as wars and the inquisitions.

source

13 comments on “Revelation 11: The Two Witnesses

  1. Over at Adams blog there is also a very good study on Revelation Chapter 11 by Dave, which includes thoughts on the two Witnesses.

    The two witnesses
    • There is all sorts of speculation about the identity of the two witnesses amongst preterists, futurists, and everyone else!
    • The reference to the two olive trees and two lampstands is from Zechariah 4:11-14. There the reference is to the high priest, Joshua, and the governor, Zerubbabel. (Read Zech 4)
    What do we know about the two witnesses from the text?
    • They prophesy for 1260 days (vs. 3)
    • They are clothed in sackcloth (vs. 3) (Why? Perhaps because their message is one of impending destruction)
    • They have power to harm their adversaries (vs. 5)
    • They have power over nature and to strike the earth with plagues (vs. 6)
    • They are overcome and killed by the beast in God’s time (vs. 7)
    • Their dead bodies will lie in Jerusalem for 3 ½ days (vs. 9)
    • Their death will be celebrated (vs. 10)
    • They have been a “torment” to those on the earth (vs. 10) How and why?
    • God will make them alive again after 3 ½ days! (vs. 11)
    • They are taken up to heaven on a cloud! (vs. 12)
    • A deadly earthquake fell on the city after their departure (vs. 13)

    Explanations given for the identity of the two witnesses:
    • Religious and Civic authority (represented by the high priest and governor of Zech 4)
    • Moses and Elijah returning to earth
    • Elijah and Enoch returning to earth
    • James and Peter
    • Two people that God raised up for the role

    Its very thorough with some interesting quotes from well known bible teachers.

    You can find it here: REVELATION 11

  2. Many thanks for posting this. I especially resonate with John Gill’s perspective. Still recovering from having read “Left Behind” a decade ago 🙂

    • Manfred im somewhere between Gill and Clark:

      This is extremely obscure; the conjectures of interpreters are as unsatisfactory as they are endless on this point. Those who wish to be amused or bewildered, may have recourse both to ancients and moderns on this subject.

      LOL!

  3. I am coming closer to the belief that no one is going to know for certainty the meaning of these prophecies until they are fulfilled. That is the way that it was with the Messianic prophecies as well as the prophecies of the church age. We are like the apostles who asked the risen Jesus Christ just before He ascended to heaven whether He was going to at that time re-establish a physical national Davidic Israel kingdom in Acts 1! It was also like how the risen Jesus Christ had to explain the prophecies to the two disciples on the road to Emmaus.

    So, I really am getting out of the eschatology business. I am trying to conform my thought process to Matthew 6:25-34.

    Therefore I say unto you, Take no thought for your life, what ye shall eat, or what ye shall drink; nor yet for your body, what ye shall put on. Is not the life more than meat, and the body than raiment? Behold the fowls of the air: for they sow not, neither do they reap, nor gather into barns; yet your heavenly Father feedeth them. Are ye not much better than they? Which of you by taking thought can add one cubit unto his stature? And why take ye thought for raiment? Consider the lilies of the field, how they grow; they toil not, neither do they spin: And yet I say unto you, That even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. Wherefore, if God so clothe the grass of the field, which to day is, and to morrow is cast into the oven, shall he not much more clothe you, O ye of little faith? Therefore take no thought, saying, What shall we eat? or, What shall we drink? or, Wherewithal shall we be clothed? (For after all these things do the Gentiles seek:) for your heavenly Father knoweth that ye have need of all these things. But seek ye first the kingdom of God, and his righteousness; and all these things shall be added unto you. Take therefore no thought for the morrow: for the morrow shall take thought for the things of itself. Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.

    Now don’t get me wrong, my position is futurism. That means that Revelation chapters 1-3 apply to me right now. That is today, the things that according to that passage above I should concern myself with. Everything after Revelation 3 is tomorrow, things that I should not think about because they are in God’s hands and God has sovereign rule over them.

    Think about it. Even if we knew with 100% ironclad certainty what Revelation 4-22 meant, what would come of it? What would it change? Whether you are a historicist, futurist, idealist, amillennial, dispensational, premillennial etc. it should have no practical impact on your daily Christian living. Take the “rapture-ready” people … even if their rapture doctrines are true, from our perspective the rapture could just as easily happen 5 minutes or 500 years from now. If you are right about the rapture and it happens 500 years from now, what have you gained? If you are wrong about the rapture and it happens 5 minutes from now, what have you lost?

    The issue is right belief and right practice in our day to day living. Eschatology’s purpose is to inform, train and comfort us concerning what is to come, particularly to answer the big question that has tried the faith of many ever since Old Testament times: why do the wicked prosper and the righteous suffer? Revelation’s primary purpose is to answer that question. With that question answered, we are supposed to get on with the Sermon on the Mount, 1 and 2 Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, James etc.

    There aren’t going to be theological debates in heaven. (On the other hand, C.S. Lewis asserts that there are going to be PLENTY of pitched theological battles in hell!) I mean, how would such a debate work? One Christian says to another: “Your systematic interpretation and application of Zion theology was all wrong. The other Christian replies: “You know, you are right. What should we do about it?” The first Christian: “I say that you should praise Jesus Christ that He graciously allowed you into heaven despite all the things that you got wrong.” The second Christian: “Well that’s what I was doing before you got here!” The first Christian: “You know what, I was doing the same thing before I saw you!” The second Christian: “So, I guess we have nothing to argue about then!” The first Christian: “You know, you are right!” The second Christian: “So, what should we do now?” The first Christian: “The same thing we were doing before, which is praise God for all eternity!” The second Christian: “Well that we can spend an eternity agreeing on!”

    Or … something like that! My position is that just like the saints in Old Testament Israel who thoroughly misunderstood the Messianic and church age prophecies, no one knows the future but God, and the Christian duty is to serve God with what we do know in the present.

    • There aren’t going to be theological debates in heaven.

      And Praise God for that Job! 🙂

      I cannot fathom an eternity spent rehashing theology and eschatology positions/views.

      My position is that just like the saints in Old Testament Israel who thoroughly misunderstood the Messianic and church age prophecies, no one knows the future but God, and the Christian duty is to serve God with what we do know in the present.

      I’ve said for years, we ALL may be surprised when its said and done to find out no one had it correct.

  4. One point i wanted to make was from Dave’s post at Adams blog:

    • They are clothed in sackcloth (vs. 3) (Why? Perhaps because their message is one of impending destruction)

    I believe sackcloth denotes repentance and/or deep mourning.

    “Then Jacob rent his garments, and put sackcloth upon his loins, and mourned for his son many days.” Gen. 37:34

    “Then David said to Joab and to all the people who were with him, “Rend your clothes, and gird on sackcloth, and mourn before Abner.” 2 Sam. 3:31

    “Then He began to upbraid the cities where most of His mighty works had been done, because they did not repent. “Woe to you, Chorazin! woe to you, Bethsaida! for if the mighty works done in you had been done in Tyre and Sidon, they would have repented long ago in sackcloth and ashes.” Matt. 11:20-21

  5. I like Adam Clarke’s quote. It seems he had a good sense of humor, but he also made a good point. I’m quite sure that our post on Revelation 11 also contains plenty to be amused or bewildered at 🙂

    Thanks for the note about what sackcloth denotes. I would agree. Another passage which comes to mind right away is Joel 1:13ff, which states: “Put on sackcloth and lament, O priests; wail, O ministers of the altar. Go in, pass the night in sackcloth, O ministers of my God! Because grain offering and drink offering are withheld from the house of your God…”

    I remember seeing this same post recently at the Biblical Eschatology site. One statement which I found intriguing is the one made by Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown:

    “As two candlesticks are mentioned in Revelation 11:4, but only one in Zechariah 4:2, I think the twofold Church, Jewish and Gentile, may be meant by the two candlesticks represented by the two witnesses.”

    I thought it was a good observation (i.e. that there was one candlestick mentioned in Zechariah, but two in Revelation), but what this may indicate I’m not entirely sure. Regarding the identity and significance of the two witnesses, I also remain unsure. This was one of the most difficult sections in our study of Revelation so far.

    Going back to Adam Clarke, I browsed through the rest of his commentary on this chapter:

    http://www.godrules.net/library/clarke/clarkerev11.htm

    I can learn a lot from his humble approach toward interpreting Revelation. In addition to the quote we’ve already seen from him, he says things like this: [1] “All these things I must leave to others.” [2] “I have often acknowledged my own incapacity to illustrate these prophecies. I might have availed myself of the labours of others, but I know not who is right; or whether any of the writers on this book have hit the sense is more than I can assert, and more than I think.”

    By the way, as a point of interest, Adam Clarke was one who subscribed to the early date theory for the writing of Revelation. This can be deduced from what he wrote in his chapter 11 commentary, but here he states so explicitly:

    http://www.godrules.net/library/clarke/clarkerev22.htm

    This is the relevant quote at the above link:

    “…I have this, which to me appears of vital consequence; its dates are too late. I think the book was written before the destruction of Jerusalem, and not in 95 or 96, the date which I follow in the margin; which date I give, not as my own opinion, but the opinion of others.”

    • I remember seeing this same post recently at the Biblical Eschatology site. One statement which I found intriguing is the one made by Jamieson, Faussett, and Brown:

      “As two candlesticks are mentioned in Revelation 11:4, but only one in Zechariah 4:2, I think the twofold Church, Jewish and Gentile, may be meant by the two candlesticks represented by the two witnesses.”

      I thought it was a good observation (i.e. that there was one candlestick mentioned in Zechariah, but two in Revelation), but what this may indicate I’m not entirely sure. Regarding the identity and significance of the two witnesses, I also remain unsure. This was one of the most difficult sections in our study of Revelation so far.

      I talked to someone on a christian prophecy board a few years back who believes the two candlesticks (witnesses) represent law and grace (old and new covenants). Would that be the same as

      (the) twofold Church, Jewish and Gentile

      Regarding the identity and significance of the two witnesses, I also remain unsure. This was one of the most difficult sections in our study of Revelation so far.

      It is difficult. Least for me, lol

      Revelation is full of symbolism, so to know for sure if this also falls into that category, is hard to say.

      “…I have this, which to me appears of vital consequence; its dates are too late. I think the book was written before the destruction of Jerusalem, and not in 95 or 96, the date which I follow in the margin; which date I give, not as my own opinion, but the opinion of others.”

      The more i read the more i agree with Clarke on the date.

  6. This is interesting (don’t know anything about the author)

    So what about the two witnesses: If this is a book of symbols, then obviously whatever this means, it does not mean two witnesses. Two witnesses are a symbol, an idea, and the Bible makes it very plain. Look at these two witnesses who prophecy, they are dressed in sackcloth, fire comes from their mouth, they have the power to turn water to blood, and to strike the earth with plagues. And they are called the two olive trees, two lamps that stand before the Lord of all the earth.

    Now the symbolism there is so simple, in Deuteronomy it begins to talk about that, it says that in the mouth of two or three witnesses, let every word be established. So two witnesses is a shorthand symbol, for saying a perfect and complete testimony to truth. The Church is not only a worshipping community; the Church also is the perfect witness of God to truth. You can’t touch the worshipping community, but you can touch its public witness, that is why the two witnesses are killed.

    The Holy of Holies in any persecuted country, is as strong today as it has ever been. But the two witnesses, the public testimony of the Church, are silenced. The scripture goes on and says they are dressed in sackcloth. The Old Testament will tell you quickly, that whenever a person repented, they always wore sackcloth. So here is a repentant Church that stands before an unrepentant world that has heard the trumpets of God.

    It says fire came out of their mouth. The word of God is like fire, which consumes the enemy. That is an idea, which runs through the Old Testament. You will also find that they were able to shut the sky. Who shut the sky in the Old Testament? Elijah did. Does that mean that one of them was Elijah? No! This is a picture, that tells us that as Elijah stood in a world that had rebelled against God, and that world refused to repent – as Elijah stood in the midst of that world, he was a man who was the very incarnation of repentance, and he spoke forth on behalf of God, and he was able to prove his words by works, so the Church stands in a similar world with similar power, and can prove what they say. The Church, the whole Church is an Elijah in the middle of the world.

    It also tells us that they are able to turn water into blood. Who did that? Moses did. That doesn’t mean to say that the other one is Moses, it means that another way of looking at this Church, is that as Moses stood with a congregation, which only half believed him, he stood against a world government, and a world system that hated him and his God, and Moses stood there. The testimony to truth in the middle of lies, even so the Church stands, the perfect testimony to truth, in the middle of a world that is set against God. And it says these are the two olive trees that stand before God in all the earth.

    That comes from Zechariah Chapter 4. It says behold a seven-branched lamp stand. Also there were two olive trees by it, one on the right side and the other on the left side. We have already talked about that seven-branched lamp stand, and that is the Church, and standing beside it is another symbol, two olive trees which stand before the Lord in all the earth. The Church in all its power and witness.

    The beast is world power. And this world power puts the two witnesses to death. It describes the city where they were put to death as Sodom, What was Sodom? Sodom was all manner of sexual perversion. What was Egypt? Egypt was the great power, the government.

    Elijah thought he was the only remaining public witness, God said, not at all, not at all, I still have 7000 who have not bowed the knees to Baal. No one has touched the Holy of holies and no one can. That 7,000 is another symbolic Old Testament picture 7x10x10x10. The Old Testament is full of picture numbers. Jesus also spoke in picture numbers that his listeners understood. Do you remember in Matthew chapter eighteen Peter said to Jesus, ‘If my brother sins against me shall I forgive him up to seven times.’? Jesus replied, ‘No! Not up to seven times, but seventy times seven.’

    You look across the world, in persecuted countries and ask where is the Church we can’t see it? The Church is doing very well, its voice may be silenced, and the two witnesses are laying in the street. The greatest judgment that can ever come upon a country, is when the only speaking voice of God on earth has been silenced. However, God treats the Church the same way as He treated Jesus. And it says that they were raised up.

    source The Symbolism of Revelation

    also see, The two witnesses (Rev 11:1)

  7. I had been meaning for some time to take a look at Sam Storms’ viewpoint on Revelation 11. I finally did, and found it valuable enough that I decided to create a new post summarizing his study (you’ll see that even though it’s new, I backdated it to November 2nd):

    http://kloposmasm.wordpress.com/2009/11/02/revelation-11-part-2-historicist-view/

    Though I’m not a Historicist per se, I found myself agreeing with Storms on quite a number of points, and a few were downright enlightening. He ultimately sees the two witnesses as referring to the Church as a whole, and he presents some interesting reasons for seeing it this way. He also presents a more thorough study of what it meant in the OT to be clothed in sackcloth.

    I’m finding myself fascinated by a connection he made between the language used in verse 11 and very similar language used in Ezekiel 37:5, 10.

    [1] Revelation 11: “But after the three and a half days a breath of life from God entered them, and they stood up on their feet, and great fear fell on those who saw them.”

    [2] Ezekiel 37: ‘Thus says the Lord God to these bones, “Behold I will cause breath to enter you that you may come to life”… So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they came to life, and stood on their feet, an exceedingly great army.’

    I’m still pondering on what the full significance of that connection might mean, but I began to speculate already in the post, which again is here:

    http://kloposmasm.wordpress.com/2009/11/02/revelation-11-part-2-historicist-view/

    • I just read [quickly] through the post but want to go over it again tomorrow. Hope you don’t mind but i’ve copied [for my own personal study] your posts on Revelation 11.

      Continuing on with his discussion of the two witnesses, Sam Storms lists numerous possibilities which have been suggested for their identity. The following are several of the suggestions which are beyond the usual ones:

      [1] Peter and Paul – Some point to the martyrdom of these two apostles and the tradition that Nero prohibited their burial (cf. Rev. 11:19).
      [2] The OT and the NT – Or more likely, the Law (represented by Moses) and the Prophets (represented by Elijah).
      [3] The Word of God and the testimony of Jesus – See Strand (AUSS 19 [1981], 127-35.

      Number 2 i’ve read before–Peter and Paul is a new one on me. Where would anyone get that idea?

      I did notice he sees them as symbolic and not literally two men.

      more after i read it over again tomorrow… get ready for some questions Adam! 🙂

    • PJ,

      I don’t mind at all (your copying of my posts on chapter 11). As for your upcoming questions, I may need to defer them to Sam Storms 🙂

      Regarding Peter and Paul as the two witnesses (this is not my position), I assume this idea came from someone who associates the beast of chapters 13 and 17 with Nero (in the specific sense). It was under Nero’s reign that both Peter and Paul were martyred, and both of these apostles had a ministry characterized by the supernatural. Yet even though I agree with identifying Nero as the beast (and Rome as the beast in the general sense), I can’t see how Peter and Paul would fit the criteria for the two witnesses.

    • Hi PJ,

      Were you able to come up with those questions on Revelation 11 yet? I was only kidding about deferring them to Sam Storms 🙂

      I’ll be happy to think through any questions you come up with, as time allows…

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